SECTION – A
1. Discuss the meaning and characteristics of an organisation. Briefly discuss various approaches to understanding organisations.
2. Describe the evolutionary process of organisational design. Briefly discuss the contingency model of organisation design, with
3. Define and discuss the elements of designing a job. Briefly describe the impact of technology on Job Design. Explain with suitable examples.
4. Define Organisational Development and briefly describe various stages of Organisational Development, with suitable examples.
5. Write short notes on any three of the following :
(a) Impact of information Technology on organising work
(b) Quality of work life
(c) Methods of Organisational Analysis
(d) Survey Feedback
(e) Resistance to change.
SECTION – B
6. Please read the case and answer the questions given at the end.
Tidewater Manufacturing Company is a medium-size producer of machine gaskets operating in the south – eastern part of Bombay. Until about two years ago, the company’s financial outlook was very strong. Recently, however, it has been facing much stiffer competition from foreign producers and a variety of internal problems have also begun to surface. Top management believes that they know how to deal with the external issues. But nothing they do will be successful – until the existing problems
with employees have been addressed. Unfortunately, there is no clear consensus among the top management about the real nature or extent of employee concerns. Tandon, the firm’s President, has decided that a management committee should be formed to look into the increasing absenteeism and turnover rates, grievances, and generally weak morale. Turnover, for example, has been running at a rate of 72 per cent for the past year, grievances are up by about 25 per cent, and two recent attitude surveys showed that in some departments employee morale is, in fact, down. Tandon considers the firm to be an enlightened employer that cares about its employees. The committee he has appointed includes himself, Rajesh, Head of
Marketing, Umesh, Plant Manager in-charge of production, and Deepak, Personnel Director. The committee is now meeting in formal session.
Tandon : I appreciate your taking time to be here today. As you know, several employee- related issues have been slowing us down of late, and given the stiff competition we are getting, I believe it is high time we find out what is going on. Rajesh, how about if you lead off ?
Rajesh : As I see it, we have not been able to make the production changes we talked about last year because of all this hassling with employees. I have been giving the problem some thought and I believe that we need to light a fire under those people down the line. My sales people are out there beating the bushes, but they cannot sell a product that just does not measure up. Last week,
one of my people lost a major sale to that new West German firm.
Umesh : I agree with some of what you are saying Rajesh, but I would not lay all the blame on the production crew. After all, we have been losing a lot of good people lately and it takes time to train the new hands. Besides that, I cannot seem to get anybody to come to work on Friday. If I make any moves, the union representative hits me with a pile of grievances for unnecessary harassment. If you have some answers, I am sure we can make the modifications you were just talking about.
Tandon : I guess we know where you two stand, but I would still like another opinion.
Deepak, how do you see things ?
Deepak : My reaction is that we probably cannot deal with issues internally. I would suggest that we bring someone in from the outside to diagnose the situation. 1 have been doing some study and I think that some of the problems of turnover and absenteeism plus the poor showing in the recent attitude survey my office administered, might be due to discontent with our
production line approach. Some of those people have been doing the same thing, day in and day out, for years. They are probably bored stiff. Maybe it is time for us to consider something like job redesign.
Tandon : Okay, but all I remember about job redesign was something about job enrichment ten years ago in one of my MBA courses. Frankly, I have not kept up and I would not even know where to begin.
Rajesh : Would we not be better off if we just started a new incentive programme ?
Umesh : Incentives could work, but I would like to follow up on Deepak’s idea. By the way where does the union fit into all of this ?
Deepak : Let me do some checking and see if I can get a line on a good consultant. It should take me about ten days to put together the information we need.
Tandon : Well, let us leave it at that and plan to meet again a week from Thursday. At that point , the meeting adjourned with the
understanding that the firm would consider some form of job redesign.
(a) You are a consultant called into this situation. How would you proceed ? Would job redesign be of use here and, if so, how ?
(b) What alternative approaches to job redesign might this firm consider, i.e., would job enlargement be better than job enrichment, would a team concept be appropriate ?
(c) Should the top management involve the union at this stage ? What should it tell the employees ?