1. (a) Describe the operation of link state routing mechanism with the help of an example.
(b) What is silly window syndrome ? What its proposed solution ? Explain with the help of a diagram.
(c) Draw the waveforms of :
(i) ASK and (ii) FSK
(d) Explain the principles of digital signature
2. (a) Show the relationship between ASes, backbones and area routers in OSPF through a diagram. Also, explain the
operation of OSPF algorithm.
(b) What is a subnet ? How is subnetting implemented ?
3. (a) What is Nyquist frequency ? Explain the effect when an analog signal is sampled a less than the Nyquist frequency.
(b) Differentiate between time division multiplexing and frequency division multiplexing.
4. (a) Explain the following terms with respect TCP.
(i) Stream data transfer.
(ii) Reliable Service.
(iii) Window Size.
(iv) Urgent Pointer.
(v) Check Sum.
(b) Explain the functioning of Internet Control Message Protocol.
5. (a) Derive an expression for throughput of pure ALOHA and slotted ALOHA. Why is this value of thoughput less for pure ALOHA and how is it improved in slotted ALOHA ?
(b) An analog signal is limited to 4 kHz It is converted to a PCM signal using 8 bit/sample. What is the bit rate on the transmission line ?